The review of surveys from different European countries demonstrates that the level of antisemitic attitudes is significantly higher among Muslims than among non-Muslims, although many European Muslims do not share antisemitic beliefs. The level of antisemitism rises with the level of religiosity and with fundamentalist interpretations of Islam.So when religious Muslims claim that they have nothing against Jews, only Zionists; or when they say that their hate is the result of oppression - they are lying.
Notably, demographic and socio-economic variables—that is, educational level, age, gender, social disadvantage, discrimination, and legal restrictions of Islamic practice—cannot explain the differences between Muslims and non-Muslims. This refutes the widespread assumption that Muslim antisemitism is a reaction to discrimination or suppression.
The surveys considered are strong evidence that current interpretations of Muslim identity and belief are major sources for hatred against Jews. Further research should identify which particular interpretations of Muslim identity and Islam are prone to antisemitic beliefs and, perhaps more importantly, which are not. A distinction between Islamism and Islam is surely important, but might be insufficient: although antisemitism is particularly strong among fundamentalist as well as believing and practicing Muslims, the level of antisemitism among less religious Muslims is still higher than in the general population.
Differences related to country of origin indicate the influence of the latter on views of Jews.
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